Archive for April, 2009

How many entities are eternal or beginningless

April 14, 2009

A.- Three – God, the soul, and the prakriti (matter).
Q.What are your authorities for this statement?
A.- “Both God and the soul are eternal, they are alike in consciousness and such other attributes. They are associated together – God
pervading the soul – and are mutual companions. The prakriti (matter), which is


*Literally the sun. -Tr.

Likened to the trunk of a tree whose branches are the multiform universe which is resolved into tis elementary condition at the
time of dissolution is also eternal. The natures, attributes and characters of these three are also eternal. Of the two – God and the
soul – the latter alone reaps the fruits of this tree of the universe – good or evil – whilst the former does not. He is the All-glorious
Being who shines within, without and all around.” RIG VEDA I, 164, 20.

“The Great God – the King – revealed all kinds of knowledge to the human soul – His eternal subjects – through the Veda.” YAJUR
VEDA, 50, 8.

“The prakriti, the soul and God, all of them, are uncreated. They are the cause of the whole universe. They have no cause of the
whole universe. They have no cause and have been existing eternally. The eternal soul enjoys the eternal matter and is wrapped up
in it whilst God neither enjoys it, nor, is He wrapped up in it.” SHWETA SHWATER UPNISHAD, 4: 5.

The attributes of God and the soul have been described iin the last chapter. Here we shall treat of the properties of prakriti (matter).
“That condition of matter in which the intellect-promoting (satva – high), passion-exciting (rajas – medium) and stupidity producing
(tamas – low)qualities are found combined in equal proportions is called prakriti. From prakriti emanated the principle of wisdom
(Mahaatava), and from the latter proceeded the principle of Individuality (Ahakaara) from which emanated the five subtle entities and
the ten principles of sensation and action, and the manas, i.e., the principle of attention. From the five subtle entities issued forth the
five gross entities, such as

solids, liquids, etc. These twenty-four entities and the purush, i.e., the spirit – human and Divine – form a group of twenty-five
noumena.” SANKYA SHASTRA,1: 61.

Of all these twenty-four, the prakriti is uncreated, the principle of wisdom, the principle of Individuality, and the five subtle entities
are the products of the prakriti and are in their turn the cause of the ten principles of sensation, and action and of the principle of
attention. The purush – i.e., the spirit – is neither the cause (material) nor the effect of anything.
Satyarth Prakash

by Swami Dayanand


1. Has this universe proceeded from God or from something else?

April 14, 2009

A.-God is the efficient cause of this universe, but the material cause is prakriti – the primordial elementary matter.
“He who has created this multiform universe, and is the cause of its sustenance as well as dissolution, the Lord of the universe in
whom the whole world exists, is sustained and then resolved into elementary condition, is the Supreme Spirit. Know Him, O man, to
be your God and believe in no other as the Creator of the Universe.” RIG VEDA 10: 126, 8.

“In the beginning the whole was enveloped in utter darkness. Nothing was discernible. It was like a dark night, Matter was in its very
elementary form. It was like ether. The whole universe, completely overspread by darkness, was insignificantly small compared
with the Infinite God who thereafter, by His omnipotence, evolved this cosmic world – the, effect – out of the elementary matter – the
cause.* RIG VEDA 10: 129, 3

“Love and worship that Supreme Spirit, O men, Who is the support of all the luminous bodies (such as the sun), the one
Incomparable Lord of the present as


It is remarkable that modern science is slowly but surely coming round to what the Vedas teach. The atomic theory is losing ground
and the Vedic doctrine gaining ground day by day. Mark what one of the modern most scientists, M. Bernard Brunlhes says:- “Matter
which seems to give us the imaage of stability and repose only exists, then, by reason of the rotatory movement of its particles so
that when atoms have radiated all their energy in the form of luminous, calorific, electric and other forms of vibrations, they return to
the primitive ether.” Rama Deva.

well as of the future worlds, Who existed even before the world came into being, and has created all things that exist in space
between the earth and heaven.*”RIG VEDA 10:121, 1.
Satyarth Prakash

by Swami Dayanand

What is the best time for marriage and which is the best form?

April 1, 2009

The best time for marriage, for a girl, is from the sixteenth to the twenty-fourth year of her life and for a man, from the twenty-fifth to the forty-eighth year. The marriage of a girl of sixteen to a man of twenty-five years is called Inferior marriage. Of a girl of eighteen or twenty with a man of thirty-five or forty is called medium marriage. Of a girl of twenty-four with a man of forty-eight is called superior marriage.
The best form of marriage is that by choice (Swayamvara), after the education of the contracting parties is finished and their Brahmacharya for the aforesaid period completed. Happy is the country wherein the people devote themselves to the pursuit of knowledge, live chaste lives, and adopt the aforesaid form of marriage. Down into the depths of misery sinks that country wherein the people do not practice Brahmacharya, nor acquire knowledge, where early
*As Ashvini, Rohni, etc.**As Rose, etc.***Such as Ganges, etc.****Himdlyd.^Kali (Black), etc.^^Chaandali (an outcast), etc.+ Mend, Parrot, etc.++ As Naagi (snake), etc.+++ The idea of the sage Manu seems to be that the people should not give ugly name to their children. -Tr.
marriage and marriage between the unsuitable, are prevalent, for, marriage preceded by the practice of Brahmacharya and perfection of knowledge is the basis of all true reform and the source of all true happiness; the reverse of it brings on the absolute ruin of people who follow it.

Choosing a spouse

April 1, 2009

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“In connecting himself with wife, let a man studiously avoid the following ten families, be they ever so great in political power or rank, or ever so rich in cows, goats, horses, elephants, gold or grain.”* MANU 3: 6.
*Similarly, while choosing a husband, let a girl avoid a man from the aforesaid families.

“The family which is not religious, that which is destitute of men of character, that in which the study of the Veda is neglected, that the members whereof have long and thick hair on the body and that which is subject to such diseases as Piles, consumption, Asthma, Bronchitis, Dyspepsia, Epilepsy, Leprosy, and Albinism; because all these faults and diseases are transmitted to the offspring.* Therefore both husband and
*A good example is given by Sir Alfred Garrod, who writes:- “A few years since, I was consulted by a gentleman laboring under a severe form of gout with chalk stones, and although not more than fifty years old, hea had suffered from the disease for a long period. On inquiry, i ascertained that for upwards of four centuries the eldest son of the family had invariably been afflicted with gout when he came into possession of the family estate.” (Gout and Rheumatic Gout, by H.A. Garrod, M.D., F.R.S.) – (Marriage and Disease, by S.A. Strahan, P.220.)As to advice respecting marriage, it may at once be said that those already suffering from any form of tubercular disease should not marry. Neither should anyone marry a member of a family in whicn consumption or other form of tubercular disease is common. – (Marriage and Disease, by S.A. Strahan, p. 212).

wife should come from good (physically, morally and intellectually) families.” MANU 3: 7.
*Epilepsy is, in fact, one of the most strongly hereditary of all diseases. In this respect, it is on a footing with the suicidal impulse, melancholia, drunkenness, and gout. Dr. Russell Renolds found heredity well marked in 31 per cent of his cases, and says, ” I am therefore, led to believe that an hereditary tendency of epilepsy is much more common that it is generally represented to be by recent writers on the subject.” Echeverria said 28 per cent of all cases coming under his notice were hereditary. Webster in England, and Esquirol in France, declared that a third of all cases of epilepsy depended on family taint, while Dr. Gowers, one of the greatest authorities on the subject, asserts that no less than 36 per cent of all epilepsy has hereditary transmitted predisposition as a foundation.
I myself have records of 143 consecutive cases of epilepsy, as they appeared for admission into an asylum for the insane. There were 93 males and 50 females. Of the males, 344 per cent were members of families in which either epilepsy or insanity of some description had already appeared; of the females, 50 per cent belonged to the same classes; while in 398 of the total of both sexes there was positive evidence of hereditary taint. I would also remark that in a considerable number of my cases, no history of any kind could be obtained.- (Marriage and Disease, by S.A. Strahan, p – 134-135)
“Let a man never marry one who is pale and anaemic, nor one who is altogether a bigger and stronger person than himself or has a redundant member,* nor one who is an invalid, nor one either with no hair or too much hair or too much hair,** nor one immoderately talkative, nor one with red*** eyes.” MANU 3: 8.
*All families in which diabetes occurs should be looked upon with suspicion, and should epilepsy, idiocy, insanity, or deaf-mutism also have appeared in the family, it is a very grave question whether marriage should be ventured upon. -(Marriage and disease, by S.A. Strahan, p.131).**Here we do at times find cases to support the theory, but it is amongst those less grave characters which, while unmistakably marked, do not so rapidly go to extinction of the family that we must find our strongest proof, among such characters are hore-lip, cleft palate, club-foot squint, cataract supernumerary fingers or toes, color-blindness, premature baldness, or greyness, deaf-mutbifida, and the like; or on the other hand, where the characters physiological. Instances of repeated transmission of any or all of the above-mentioned characters can be found everywhere around, and , doubtless, cases will present to the mind of the reader.. -(Marriage and Disease, by Dr. S.A. .Strahan, p.63).
A still more peculiar case was that of Edward Lambart, “the human porcupine”, as he was called; this man’s skin was covered by warty projections which were periodically moulted. He had six sons and two grandsons similarly affected, while the females of the family escaped; the two grandsons mentioned having seven sisters who were free from the peculiarity. (Dr.S.A. Strahan’s Marriage and Disease, p. 71).
“In the village of Koshilovo (Grodno Government) there are over 50 peasants who have more than usual number of fingers. According to interesting particulars published in the Novoe Vremye, they are all descendants of a peasant who married in the first half of the last century, and who had extra fingers on one of his hands. In the present generation this abnormality is reported to the extent of 2, 3, 4, and 5 even additional fingers. Some cases simply show a thumb duplicated from the first joint. As the result of intermarriage the deformity is spreading to neighboring villages. It dispenses the young men from military service, however sound they may be constitutionally.” – (the Eugenics Review, London.).***The word in the text is Bhura or brown. But I think this is not right. Very likely there has been a slip of the pen here. The word in the verse which has been translated into Bhura (brown) is Fingalaa which has been rendered into Pilaa or yellow in the author’s book called Sanskaar Vidhi. Here however, it seems that the word means red. -Tr.

“Nor one with the name of star,* of a tree,** or of a river,*** or of a mountain,**** nor one bearing a name denoting low origin,^ or servility,^^ nor one named after a bird,+ , a snake, ++ nor one whose name inspires terror.” MANU 3: 9. These names are despicable and belong to other things as well.+++ “Let him choose for his wife, a girl who has a graceful figure without any deformity, who has a pretty name, who walks gracefully like a swan or an elephant, who has fine hair and lovely teeth, and whose body is exquisitely soft.” MANU 3: 10.

Brahmacharya or student life

April 1, 2009

“Let a student* who has not violated his vows of Brahmachaarya(student-life), and has conducted himself, righteously according to the advice of his preceptor, enter married life after he has studied with their subsidiary sciences, the four Vedaas, three Vedas, two Vedas, or one Veda only.” MANU 3: 2.
“Let him, who has faithfully discharged his duties towards his preceptor and received from his father, – natural or spiritual (i.e., the teacher), the gift of the knowledge of the Veda, sit on an elegant bed, decked with a garland of flowers; and let his father ( natural or spiritual) honor him with the present of a cow.” MANU 3: 3. A female student possessed of the aforesaid qualification should also be honored in the same way by her father.
“Let a twice-born man (Braahman, Kshatriya, and Vaish) after having obtained the consent of his teacher and taken the bath ( prescribed for the ceremony of Return Home from the seminary), return home and espouse a maid, of his own Class, endowed with excellent qualities.” MANU 3: 4.
*Male or female

“A girl, who is not descended on his mother’s side within the sixth degree and does not bear the same family name (Gotra) as his father’s. is eligible for marriage.” MANU 3: 5.
It is a fact that “we do not love or value a thing, that we are familiar with, so much as one that is hidden from our view.” SHATHAPATHA BRAAHMANA. For instance, if a person has heard a great deal about the sweetness of sugar, but never tasted it, his mind is taken up with the desire of tasting it. Or when we hear a person, who is not known to us, highly extolled for his excellent qualities, it makes us very eager to make his acquaintance. For the same reason, a man should marry a girl, who comes from a distant country and is not a near relative either on his mother’s side or father’s side.*
The advantages and disadvantages of distant and near marriages
The advantages and disadvantages of distant and near marriages respectively are:-
Any two persons who have, in their childhood, lived near each other, played and quarreled together, loved one another, noticed each other’s faults, imperfections, ebullitions of temper
*At Washington city before the National Medical Association long since in the session there, Dr. S.M. Bewis made the following shocking statement: “My researches give me authority to say that over ten per cent of the deaf and dumb, and over five percent of the blind , and nearly fifteen percent of the idiotic in our State institutions for subject of these effects, are the offspring of kindred parents.”

and misbehaviors, and perhaps sometimes, even each other undressed, if married to each other, can never love each other to the extent desired.
The marriage of near relatives does not improve the race from want of interchange of fluids and essences (such as blood) of the body, it rather deteriorates it,. This is analogous to the addition of water to water, no new quality being produced.
As the addition of sugar and such medicines as ginger, improves the taste and quality of milk, so does the marriage of people, who are not related to each other (either on father’s or on mother’s side), improve the race.
As in the case of an invalid, change of climate and diet very often effects a cure, so does marriage with foreigners or distant people improve the health of the parties and prove beneficial in every other respect.
When the parties are nearly related to each other and live amongst their people, the sorrows and joys of one family will

affect the other and there will be many occasions for family disputes to arise; while marriages among distant people and consequent separation from relatives lengthen the thread of mutual love. This is not the case when they live near their people.
When marriages are contracted with people of foreign or distant countries, things and news from those countries can be easily obtained (and consequently relations between different countries become closely established). This not possible when people marry near relatives or persons living near their homes, or, in their own country.
In Sanskrit a daughter is called duhitri (from Du – distant, Hit – good), because the marriage of a girl to a man who comes from a distant country or distant part of the same country is productive of good.
If the bride’s people do not live very far from her husband’s home, there is a possibility of her parents becoming poor, as whenever she visits her parents, they will have to give her something or other by the way of a present. If their people live near at hand, on any slight friction taking place between the husband and the wife, she, feeling assured that her people will support her, will at once leave her husband and go to her parents. That may become the cause of mutual reviling and wrangling, for, women, as a rule, are so easily offended and pleased.
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